Sesbania or swamp seeds are one of the attractive spice varieties that are widely found in southern part of Alabama. It grows into a shrub or small tree and reaches up to 2m height. It is also grown as a garden specimen and it can be easily identified with the help of bright red flowers and fruits which have four wings. The word sesbania is from Latin language and in Arabic nation it was called as Sesban. It is a legume and also named as swamp pea and found to be great for quail, duck marshes, etc. It can remain a good cover for upland game birds and ducks and can grow up to 8 to 12 feet height and it is one of the finest quail food qualities available now. It grows best in places where moisture is there and it can also be grown in most of the soil types.
In India sesbania grows during the onset of southwest monsoon and the seeds are sown during the months of June-July. It is also grown in Southern part of United States after the soil obtains the right amount of moisture from April rains. In India sesbania seeds are usually grown through broadcast however, sometimes they are drilled in rows which are 30cm apart. It is fast in growing and requires little weeding and these is no need for fertilizers also. In India it is grown as a main crop in rice rotation or grown as border crop on the rice field edges.
The seeds will get ready for harvesting during the month of September or October. However, it takes about 5-51/2 months to let the seeds ripe. In United States the seeds of sesbania get ripe in 2 months.
The ripe pods are handpicked and obtained in seed form by beating with sticks yet there were possibilities of some pods get shatter. In countries like United States , machines are employed for harvesting and threshed with the help of thresher in the place of manual beating. The seeds are treaded property with insecticides when they are set for storing as possibilities of insects getting penetrated into the seeds are higher.
In India sesbania seeds yield is about 600kg/ha;
In Peru the yield is 900kg/ha;
In California it is about 1000kg/ha yield.
The fiber yields are 100 to 1000 kg/ha.
- The sesbania crop is self pollinating.
- It requires no isolation to produce pure seeds.
- Meloidogyne incognita, M.Javanica, etc are few among the several nematodes which attach this crop.
- It precedes vegetables which are planted in autumn in countries like Untied States.
- It is not recommended to be grown in sandy soil due to the possibilities of nematodes attack.
- During storage weevils or caterpillar may attack sesbania seeds.
- It also grows in hot weather but takes 90 to 100 days to ripe.
- The seeds are haunted by birds like turkey, doves, quail, etc.
- It suits best to be grown in orchards as it protects other young trees during hot season.
- The seeds of sesbania after it get matured remains cream in color and the seat coat is smooth.
- This plant is classified as a non crowder and mainly planted to serve as bird feed.