Cassia tora L also called as Cassia Obtusifolia in Portuguese belongs to the Caesalpiniaceae is a weed that is irrigated in many parts of India. The seeds of this plant contain natural gelling property and applied in several industries as a gelling agent. This plant can be irrigated in different climates such as hot, wet and tropical climates. It is considered for it tonic, stimulant and carminative nature. The seeds contain volatile cassia oil of about 1-2% that produces good taste and aroma when added to food applications. Cassia tora contains primary chemical components such as cinnamaldehyde, mannitol, coumarins, gum, tannins. The essential oils present in cassia tora seeds are eugenol, aldehydes, and pinene. Apart from that cassia contains other constituents such as resins, mucilage, sugars, etc.
Cassia tora powder is one of the prominent and most demanded by product of cassis tora seeds and splits and these are considered as ancient ingredients. Cassia tora had been a natural pesticide in India during earlier days. The seeds of cassia when roasted become a good substitute for coffee. Cassia tora gum powder is obtained through different processing methods. The seeds are purified in terms of extracting the endosperm. Both cassia tora and cassia obtusifolia seeds are applied for extracting endosperm. Pet food industry benefits a lot from cassia tora powder and when combined with guar gum cassia tora gum powder stays an efficient ingredient to be applied in mining and other range of industries.
It is used for the following properties,
- Foam Stabilizer
- Moisture Retention Agent
- Texturing agent in Cheese, dairy desserts that are frozen, poultry and meat products.
- Combined with Carrageenan or Xanthan gum to form into unique gels.
- It contains 75% of high molecular weight.
- Polysaccharide consisting primarily of a linear chain of 1,4-B-D-mannopyranose units with 1,6
- linked a- D-galactopyranose units
- Contains 5:1 ration of mannose to galactose.
- Saccharides contain 77.2-78.9% of mannose.
- Contains 15.7 to 14.7% of Galactose.
- Contains 7.1 to 6.3% of glucose.
- Applicable formula (C6H10O5) n.H2O.
- Structural and chemical properties are similar to that of carob bean gum, tara gum and guar gum.
- Cassia gum had been approved for application in countries like Europe and approved by The Commission Directive (EEC No. E 499).
- Listed as a stabilizer for canned per foods in the Annex of the Council Directive (70/524/EEC)
- The Ministry of Health and Welfare Announcement No. 160 (10 August 1995) has announced approval for this product to be used as a food additive in Japan.
- In United Stated a team of experts from the department of toxicology, pharmacology and food science have reviewed the safety of cassia gum to be applied as a thickening agent in pet food.
- There are some data available that shows toxic effects of cassia gum powder in animals which has been proved to be safe (GRAS) when it is applied under conditions where it is used as a thickening agent in human and pet foods.
- Abbreviations: FFDCA, Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; GRAS, generally recognized as safe; NTP, National Toxicology Program; OECD, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; PADI, possible average daily intake
- United States TSCA
- Canada NDSL
- Korea ECL
- Australia AICS
- Europe EINECS
Cassia gum can form into gel when added with carrageenan and the gel strength increases in carrageenan solutions and becomes stable as a result of the excellent retorting stability present in cassia gum. Both cassia and xanthan gums cannot form into gels when they are added alone but when these two are combined in aqueous dispersions they produce gum form cohesive and elastic gels. Cassia contains effective gel forming capacity than xanthan due to the unique branched polysaccharide galactose/mannose structure of cassia gum.
Cassia tora seeds contain cassia tora split or endosperm, an outer husk and ovary among these only the split contains polysaccharides which is then considered for gum production.
The extraction process begins by splitting or removing the husk and germ. The splitting allows husk and germ to get loosened from endosperm and become brittle through heating. The endosperm is then obtained or removed and sent for purification however, the endosperm remains unbroken during these processes.
- The seeds are sent to different cleaning methods to ensure impurity removing.
- Then the cleaned seeds are sent for dehusking and splitting process.
- Splits are obtained through thermal and mechanical processed of de-husking.
- Splits are then ground to obtain homogenous particles or cassia tora gum powder.
Refined cassia gum powder contains high quantity of galactose side chains which restricts synergic gelling effect with anionic polymers. Due to this smaller amount of hydrocolloid blend that contains cassia gum is applied in food products to obtain same result with carrageenan alone or blending carrageenan with other related galactomannans.
|French||Gomme de cassia|
|Portuguese||Goma de cassia|
|Romanian||Guma de cassia|
The seed consists of an outer husk, an endosperm (cassia tora split) and the ovary or germ. Only the endosperm or split, which contains mainly polysaccharides, is used for the production of the cassia gum.
Both husk and germ are removed in the de-husking and splitting process. The impact of the splitting procedure is that both husk and germ are loosened from the endosperm and made brittle by heating and can be removed in the subsequent purification procedure after pulverization. The split (endosperm), however, remains intact at these temperatures. Due to its much greater particle size, the split can be separated from husk and germ particles through a couple of physical cleaning steps.
The splitting procedure starts with roasting of the seeds. All seeds are heated for several minutes. During the roasting process the endosperm (split) remains intact and flexible, while husk and germ, which are more sensitive to heat, become brittle. Mechanical stress pulverizes husk and germ and the powder is separated from the intact split by sieving. Remaining traces of husk and germ on the split particles are finally removed through a series of physical cleaning steps.
The seeds are dehusked and de-germed by milling and screening of the endosperm.
Cassia Gum is high molecular weight (approximately 200,000 - 300,000) polysaccharides composed of galactomannans; the mannose:galactose ratio is about 5:1. Semi-refined Cassia gum normally containing detectable amounts of anthraquinones.
The raw material seed is subject to different mechanical cleaning steps in order to remove other impurities, such as, farm waste, undeveloped seeds and stones.
After cleaning raw material is subject to a de-husking and splitting process.
Thermal and mechanical treatment removing husk and germ from the seeds resulting in splits. Finally the splits are ground to a uniform small particle size powder.
- Cassia gum is hot water soluble and requires heating to fully solubilise and reach full viscosity in aqueous solutions.
- Cassia Gum is comprised of at least 75 % polysaccharide consisting primarily of a linear chain of 1,
4-D-mannopyranose units with 1,6 linked a-D-alactopyranose units.
- The ratio of mannose to galactose is about 5:1.
- Cassia gum forms firm thermoplastic gels with carrageenan.
- Cassia gum and xanthan gum, on their own, do not have the ability to form gels. But cassia gum combined with xanthan gum, aqueous dispersions of cassia gum form cohesive, elastic gels.
- Cassia is known as one of the best gelling agent,
|CAS No. of Cassia Gum Powder (Galactomannan)||11078-30-1|
|INS NO for Cassia Gum Powder||427|
|EINECS No. of Cassia Gum Powder||234-299-6|
|EEC No. of Cassia Gum Powder||E499|
|Korea||KE - 17406|
Refined Cassia gum is a high number of galactose side chains prohibit the synergistic gelling effect with anionic polymers. As a result, a smaller amount of hydrocolloid blend containing cassia gum is needed in a food product to achieve the same effect as with carrageenan alone or blends of carrageenan with other related galactomannans.
- Gelling Agent
- Bonding agent